Autism is a developmental disorder that can cause problems in communication, social interaction and behavior. There are several questions regarding autism symptoms and how accurate they really are.
The “mild autism symptoms” are not as accurate as many other diagnostic tools. They can be used to determine a diagnosis, but they are not enough to make a definitive one.
Autism’s symptoms are thought to be accurate. While one or two signs aren’t enough to diagnose autism, physicians will consider the whole picture to see whether an autism diagnosis is acceptable.
In the area of mental, behavioral, and developmental problems, the labels autism and autism spectrum disorder are relatively recent diagnoses.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) created the umbrella term autism spectrum disorders and eliminated some of the separate diagnoses, such as Asperger’s syndrome, to ensure that more people with similar symptoms received better behavioral therapy and medical treatment.
There is fear that these alterations may lead to incorrect diagnosis. Clinicians are still learning more about how the condition develops in a broader spectrum of patients so that they may enhance their knowledge and focus therapy more effectively.
Due to the lack of a definite test for autism, errors might occur throughout the diagnosing procedure. Autism tests may not always catch all children with autistic symptoms. Many youngsters are not detected by these screens and subsequently get an autism diagnosis.
Similarly, some children may be diagnosed with autism at a young age, and their symptoms seem to lessen as they become older.
Continuing to Advance Medical Knowledge of Autism
Although the word autism has been used since the early twentieth century, it was not until the 1940s that it was applied to the developmental disease. Children that were less mobile, had weaker cognitive and language skills, and did not appear interested in interacting were documented by Leo Kanner and colleagues.
Kanner and his colleagues used to assume that autism was caused by “refrigerator moms,” or women who were so frigid toward their children that their emotional and cognitive development was impeded. Based on a 1970s study on twins, further research into the scientific basis of the illness ruled out parental involvement and proposed a hereditary etiology instead.
Autism was separated from schizophrenia in 1980, and it was no longer classified as a psychotic disorder. Instead, it evolved into an unique disorder with its own set of symptoms.
Autism was recognized as a developmental condition with a wide variety of symptoms by the time the DSM-IV was published. Autism became a widely recognized disorder with the release of the long-awaited DSM-5.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), one out of every 44 children in the United States has autism. This is up from only ten years ago, when one out of every 110 youngsters was said to have autism. Many people may believe that more children are being born with autism because of the apparent increase in cases, however this adjustment really represents substantial advancements in the accuracy of diagnosing autism spectrum disease.
Autism Is Currently Diagnosed In This Way
Starting at 6 months of age, pediatricians are more likely to check for autistic symptoms, and these screenings generally continue until the kid is around 4 years old. The following are some of the ways your kid may be evaluated for autism and diagnosed if symptoms stable or worsen:
Regular appointments with your child’s physician include developmental checks.
If your family has a history of autism, you should be evaluated again.
Adult behavioral evaluations, which include medical history and clinical observations.
Doctors utilize a variety of questionnaires and screening lists to better understand and assess symptoms that children and adults may have.
According to a 2013 research, as children become older, they show less signs of loss. Autism is usually diagnosed at the age of two, when behavioral and cognitive symptoms have stabilized. However, some children’s symptoms may improve as they become older.
The research polled 34 people aged 8 to 21 who had received treatment after receiving an early diagnosis. They were compared to 44 children with autism who had “high-functioning” or minor symptoms. Early intervention youngsters, according to reports, acted no differently from their neurotypical classmates.
This research does not rule out the possibility that the children had developmental issues that contributed to their autism diagnosis, but it does demonstrate the value of early intervention with behavior therapy. Doctors and therapists often update diagnoses based on observation and new information as part of their treatment.
If a person receives a revised diagnosis, it does not always imply that their first diagnosis was incorrect. Instead, fresh observations have been made, and a new treatment plan to help the person is required. In this situation, changing the treatment plan indicates that the kid is more self-sufficient and hence does not need as much behavior therapy.
Autism Misdiagnosis in Children
A research published in 2019 cast doubt on the usefulness and accuracy of autism diagnosis.
Researchers looked at the medical records of 25,999 individuals aged 16 to 26 months who were assessed for autism using the M-CHAT/F survey. This questionnaire was used as part of the diagnostic procedure for 91 percent of the children questioned. Researchers tracked their improvement from the age of four to eight years old. According to the poll, only 40% of the children were eventually diagnosed with autism, indicating that it is not an effective screening tool.
The survey’s issues seemed to be racially and linguistically motivated.
Children from racial minorities were less likely than white children to obtain a diagnosis.
Children from homes where English was not spoken had more incorrect diagnoses.
Male children were more likely than girls to be correctly diagnosed with autism.
The current knowledge of autism is mostly based on surveys of Caucasian male children, but physicians are learning more about how autism manifests itself in persons of all genders and races. This will help doctors improve the diagnosis criteria for autism, allowing them to assist more patients in receiving proper treatment.
Another 2014 research claims that the early childhood signs of autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are so similar that some children are misdiagnosed. The research looked at why some youngsters lose their autism diagnosis. When the youngsters in the study started to show increased inventiveness, hyperactivity, and inattentiveness, the researchers discovered that many of them were given an updated diagnosis of ADHD.
Brain scans of persons who had lost their autism diagnosis, those with high-functioning autism, and those who suffered recurrence of symptoms were used in a separate research. The researchers discovered that those who “forgot” their condition had more activity in other brain regions that assist cognitive performance.
The research compared the brain scans of autistic people to those of neurotypical people on a sentence comprehension challenge. The autism group stimulated the same brain regions, but the neurotypical control group activated different ones. Those who had “forgotten” their diagnosis, on the other hand, had brain areas active in both hemispheres that were not present in the scans of either the high-functioning or neurotypical control groups.
Autism Research Continues to Improve Diagnostic Accuracy
Pediatricians have said that they need improved diagnostic tools in order to appropriately diagnose the youngsters they see.
For starters, many people have known for a long time that the list of symptoms is insufficient to appropriately identify non-white, non-male populations. This implies that many individuals who currently have limited access to health care will not get the care they need.
Anecdotal data also shows that clinicians may overdiagnose autism in certain children with comparable developmental problems on the spectrum in order to gain more Medicaid funds for treatment. Because it is an evidence-based treatment, Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) therapy is usually funded in part by insurance. Despite this coverage, accessing this treatment for a kid with milder symptoms or a lower-level diagnosis, rather than a more rigorous degree of autism, may cost parents more money.
Because there is no cure for autism, individuals do not “lose” their diagnosis. Theories vary from erroneous initial diagnosis to successful treatment that permits symptoms to be properly controlled to the point where they seem to be gone.
It is critical to keep improving diagnostic criteria in order to serve as many children as possible. Understanding why diagnoses fail does not imply that autism is a false diagnosis, but rather that physicians must continue to improve their knowledge and treatment of the illness.
Frequently Asked Questions
- symptoms of autism in adults
- is autism genetic
- what causes autism
- are online autism tests accurate
- autism treatment
Janice is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst. She graduated from the University of British Columbia with a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology and Special Education. She also holds a Master of Science in Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) from Queen’s University, Belfast. She has worked with and case managed children and youth with autism and other intellectual and/or developmental disabilities in home and residential setting since 2013.